Medical Physiology Online

Peer reviewed, open access journal. ISSN 1985-4811.

Archive for the ‘256080’ Category

To give or not to give lecture slides to students before I deliver the lecture?

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To give or not to give lecture slides to students before I deliver the lecture?

E.S.Prakash, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, AIMST University, 08100 Bedong, Kedah, Malaysia.

E-mail: dresprakash at gmail dot com

Download PDF of the Letter

Supplement 1 Slides of an entire lecture [Sample]

Supplement 2 Slides used for providing a Preview of an upcoming lecture [Sample]

Supplement 3 Post-test [Sample]

Submitted 25 Feb 2010; revised, accepted and published 22 Mar 2010

Acknowledgment: The author is the editor and publisher of Medical Physiology Online.

This manuscript was reviewed and accepted for publication as a letter by Dr David J Solomon, Professor of Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA. E-mail: dsolomon at msu dot edu

Dr Solomon is a member of Senior Advisory Board of Medical Physiology Online.

Please cite this article as: Prakash ES To give or not to give my lecture slides to students before I deliver the lecture? Medical Physiology Online 2010; available from

Prepublication Record: The prepublication record containing the original version of the manuscript, editor’s comments and author’s response can be accessed at

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, is properly cited.

Written by Elapulli S. Prakash

March 21, 2010 at 11:26 PM

Posted in 256080

Announcement: 8th Inter-Medical School Physiology Quiz, 2010

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At the 7th Inter-Medical School Physiology Quiz held on 2 and 3 October 2009 at the University of Malaya [for details, click here], over 30 teams participated including teams from medical schools in Malaysia, Thailand, Japan, China, Singapore, Srilanka, India, Philippines, and Indonesia. The team from National University of Singapore emerged the winner. The team from Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok came second, and the team from Monash University, Malaysia team came third.

Mc Graw Hill Inc., donated a  2 -volume set of ‘Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine’ to each member of the  winning team. Oxford-Fajar Malaysia also donated book prizes to the teams that came second and third. All the 30 plus University teams enjoyed another stimulating and memorable physiology quiz and new friends were made across states and nations.

The 8th Inter-Medical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) will be hosted by University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur, and is tentatively scheduled for the last week of September 2010. There is no registration fee for participants, and organizers will provide free food and accommodation arrangements to all student participants. For further information, kindly contact the programme chairperson Dr Cheng Hwee Ming at hmingcheng at gmail dot com

Contributed by

Dr Cheng Hwee Ming

Department of Physiology

Faculty of Medicine

University of Malaya

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

E-mail: hmingcheng at gmail dot com

Written by Elapulli S. Prakash

March 11, 2010 at 3:41 AM

Posted in 256080

Question regarding “Choosing Sex”

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I refer to the article “Choosing Sex” by Professor Capel published recently in The Scientist [accessed 6 Oct 2009]

My question is what would happen if none of these signals (Wnt, SRY, FGF9) were present  in the first place. What would be the eventual fate of the bipotential gonad? Will both testes and ovaries develop or neither?

Ravivarma Panirselvam, 

Second Year Medical Student

AIMST University, 08100 Bedong, Kedah, Malaysia

E-mail: ravivarmarao at gmail dot com

Conflict of interests: none


Posted in the “Ask a Question” Section by E.S.Prakash, Editor, MPO.

Written by Elapulli S. Prakash

October 6, 2009 at 12:01 PM

Posted in 256080

Increasing kidney oxygenation as a potential therapeutic avenue for kidney disease

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Point of View

Increasing kidney oxygenation as a potential therapeutic avenue for kidney disease

Nikki R Adler, Department of Physiology, Monash University, PO BOx 13F, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Melbourne, Australia. E-mail: nradl2 at student dot monash dot edu

Manuscript received 23 Jul 2009; first decision 5 Aug 2009; revised 3 Oct 2009; accepted and published 3 Oct 2009


It is important to investigate the mechanisms of chronic kidney disease as it is a public health problem worldwide. The unique architecture of the kidney vasculature underpins the kidney’s susceptibility to hypoxia. The countercurrent arrangement of arteries and veins in the renal cortex and of capillaries (ascending and descending) in the medulla contributes to decreased oxygen availability. Kidney disease is associated with loss of peritubular capillaries in the tubulointerstitium. Tissue hypoxia contributes to the progression and pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease. Hypoxia occurs in the tubulointerstitium prior to structural microvascular damage. Thus, hypoxia is a pathogenic factor in early stage renal disease. Approaches to increase intrarenal oxygenation form a potential therapeutic target. Presently, inhibition of the renin angiotensin system is used to treat chronic kidney disease. Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors afford renoprotection in part by altering the balance between oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption, thereby treating chronic hypoxia in the tubulointerstitium. Erythropoietin (EPO) may confer renal cytoprotection and improve kidney oxygenation. However, its efficacy in the treatment of chronic renal disease in the human condition is yet to be established. Modulation of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) system, via prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors, is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of chronic kidney disease. Additional research should be conducted to further elucidate the mechanisms of kidney oxygenation and the adaptive hypoxic response.

Conflict of interests: none

PDF of the full article

Some rights reserved, N.R.Adler. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

Written by Elapulli S. Prakash

October 3, 2009 at 3:05 PM

Posted in 256080